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  • Immunity Arising from Viral Infection

    Immunity Arising from Viral Infection

    Innate Immunity and Adaptive Immunity Innate immunity is the initial immune response to infectious agents, carried out mainly by​ granulocytes and macrophages. These include a variety of responses that are genetically hard-wired to mount a quick response to families of molecules common to classes of pathogens. Adaptive (or acquired) immunity creates immunological memor​y after an initial response….

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  • Mechanisms of Immune Response to Viral Infection

    Immune Responses to Viral Infection

    T Cell and Innate Immune Responses to Viral Infection – Implications for the Pandemic While much of the focus on treating COVID-19 and preventing its spread has been on antibodies, emerging research is indicating that T cells of the adaptive immune system are equally important to not only disease resistance and vaccine development but also to….

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  • Vaccine Development Strategies to SARS-CoV-2

    SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine

    Vaccine development is protracted and risky. On average, vaccines take more than 10 years to move from the preclinical phase to approval, and the probability of market entry for any given candidate has been just 6%. With 140 COVID-19 vaccines currently in development, 13 of which are already in human trials, it is extremely likely….

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  • STATUS OF COVID-19 VACCINES IN CLINICAL TRIALS

    SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine

    The unprecedented scale of scientific effort being applied to countering the pandemic is already beginning to bear fruit. Current estimates of the infection fatality rate (IFR) have been lowered to a range of 0.5% to 1.0%; clinical trials showing promise for a low-cost, widely available steroid to reduce mortality could cut that by a third…..

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  • WHY DO YOU NEED PCR & QPCR

    PCR & QPCR

    BACKGROUND: With the discovery of DNA polymerase in 1956, an enzyme that replicates DNA, a new world of science was opened. The next big discovery in 1970 was Reverse Transcriptase (RT) that uses RNA as a template to synthesize DNA. Later, DNA polymerase1 was discovered in microorganisms living at high temperature in the walls of….

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  • Testing For SARS-Cov-2 Immunity

    There are two principal immunological test formats used to check for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in blood as evidence of a previous COVID-19 infection. One is enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a laboratory-based test in which blood, plasma, or serum of a sample drawn from an arm vein is applied to wells of a microplate….

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  • Antibody Testing for Covid-19: Revealing the Extent Of Covid-19 Spread

    Antibody Testing for Covid-19

    Two types of COVID-19 tests There are two types of tests being conducted in addressing the COVID-19 disease pandemic. The more commonly administered test is a qPCR assay designed to detect genomic material (RNA in this case) from the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes the disease. The sample for this test is mucus and cells collected….

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  • Antibody Development

    Antibodies Development and Treatment

    As of the beginning of June 2020, we are still in the early stages of the COVID-19 global pandemic. Many questions remain unanswered as to whether an effective vaccine can be produced, and if so, when it might be available. In the meantime, significant activity centers on developing therapies to treat those who experience serious….

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  • How to Get FDA Approval – Discovery, Development, Clinical Trials, Commercial

    HISTORY OF INITIATING THE FDA Early drug development in Europe rested with the people who tanned hides. They tasted their chemicals and sometimes treated malady’s and sometimes died due to toxicity. In Europe in the mid-1800s Merk, GlaxoSmithKline (Germany), Pfizer, Eli Lilly and Squibb (US) were starting a scientific approach to pharmaceuticals. There was also….

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  • Why Do You Need PCR & QPCR

    PCR & QPCR

    BACKGROUND: With the discovery of DNA polymerase in 1956, an enzyme that replicates DNA, a new world of science was opened. The next big discovery in 1970 was Reverse Transcriptase (RT) that uses RNA as a template to synthesize DNA. Later, DNA polymerase1 was discovered in microorganisms living at high temperature in the walls of….

    read more
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