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  • Immunity Arising from Viral Infection

    Immunity Arising from Viral Infection

    Innate Immunity and Adaptive Immunity Innate immunity is the initial immune response to infectious agents, carried out mainly by​ granulocytes and macrophages. These include a variety of responses that are genetically hard-wired to mount a quick response to families of molecules common to classes of pathogens. Adaptive (or acquired) immunity creates immunological memor​y after an initial response….

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  • Mechanisms of Immune Response to Viral Infection

    Immune Responses to Viral Infection

    T Cell and Innate Immune Responses to Viral Infection – Implications for the Pandemic While much of the focus on treating COVID-19 and preventing its spread has been on antibodies, emerging research is indicating that T cells of the adaptive immune system are equally important to not only disease resistance and vaccine development but also to….

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  • Vaccine Development Strategies to SARS-CoV-2

    SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine

    Vaccine development is protracted and risky. On average, vaccines take more than 10 years to move from the preclinical phase to approval, and the probability of market entry for any given candidate has been just 6%. With 140 COVID-19 vaccines currently in development, 13 of which are already in human trials, it is extremely likely….

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  • STATUS OF COVID-19 VACCINES IN CLINICAL TRIALS

    SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine

    The unprecedented scale of scientific effort being applied to countering the pandemic is already beginning to bear fruit. Current estimates of the infection fatality rate (IFR) have been lowered to a range of 0.5% to 1.0%; clinical trials showing promise for a low-cost, widely available steroid to reduce mortality could cut that by a third…..

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  • Testing For SARS-Cov-2 Immunity

    There are two principal immunological test formats used to check for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in blood as evidence of a previous COVID-19 infection. One is enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a laboratory-based test in which blood, plasma, or serum of a sample drawn from an arm vein is applied to wells of a microplate….

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  • Antibody Testing for Covid-19: Revealing the Extent Of Covid-19 Spread

    Antibody Testing for Covid-19

    Two types of COVID-19 tests There are two types of tests being conducted in addressing the COVID-19 disease pandemic. The more commonly administered test is a qPCR assay designed to detect genomic material (RNA in this case) from the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes the disease. The sample for this test is mucus and cells collected….

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  • Antibody Development

    Antibodies Development and Treatment

    As of the beginning of June 2020, we are still in the early stages of the COVID-19 global pandemic. Many questions remain unanswered as to whether an effective vaccine can be produced, and if so, when it might be available. In the meantime, significant activity centers on developing therapies to treat those who experience serious….

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  • How COVID-19 Kills

    The diagram above represents the infiltration from the blood vessels of the immune cells (see below) into the lung alveoli sack with a cytokine storm lurking in the background. One target of the COV-2 virus is the protein angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) found on airway (lung) endothelial and epithelial cells, enterocytes of small intestine and….

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  • The Science of Killing the COV-2 Virus

    The Science of Killing the COV-2 Virus

    Electron micrograph of COV-2 virus attaching and entering a cell. Note the surface proteins on the virus. The SARS-COV-2 virus (causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in very small respiratory droplets (smaller than 10-micron diameter) can persist in the air and can travel by local air currents before they drop to the ground. The COV-2 virus….

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  • The Science of COVID-19 and MarinBio (How MarinBio can help in test & vaccine development)

    The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic on March 11th, 2020. Researchers around the world are developing new detection methods and vaccines for the virus (SARS-CoV-2) that causes the COVID-19 disease in an FDA expedited manner. Both research & development endeavors take valuable time. With the advent of a quick COVID-19 diagnostic test, the….

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