Exosomes Mediate Cell- to-Cell Communications
Posted on Feb 26, 2020
Cell-secreted Extracellular Vesicles are important mediators of cell to cell communication in distinct physiological and pathological processes, including cancer. Tumor cells release multiple types of, Extracellular Vesicles, including large Oncosomes, Tumor MicroVesicles, Exosomes of which all based on sizes, morphologies and mechanisms of biogenesis. Tumor MicroVesicles are produced by direct outward budding and fission of the plasma membrane, whereas Exosomes are generated within MultiVesicular Bodies and released through fusion with the plasma membrane. The Extracellular Vesicles selectively package DNAs, RNAs, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and other metabolites, which are transferred to recipient cells at local and distant microenvironments, for example in promoting tumor progression and metastasis. Knowing the contents of Exosomes, MarinBio and others can improve efficacy by changing what is packaged into them. These modifications are achieved by overexpression of certain proteins or certain RNAs packed within the Exosomes. Also, sequences of DNA or RNA have demonstrated neuroprotective or angiogenic properties when packed inside Exosomes or directed to the Exosomes.